|Type||Division of Daimler AG|
|Founder(s)||Gottlieb Daimler, Karl Benz|
|Area served||Worldwide (except Mercedes-Benz vehicles and services with other distributors worldwide)|
|Key people||Dieter Zetsche, CEO|
Internal combustion engines
|Services||Automotive financial services|
SubsidiariesMercedes-Benz Accessories GmbH is an independent subsidiary based in Stuttgart-Vaihingen, founded in 2000. Its business include car accessories, personal accessories, Collection and promotional items, and product design.
Mercedes-Benz AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1998. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1999-01-01.
QualitySince its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles - such as J.D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in this criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J.D. Power. In J.D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place, surpassing quality leader Toyota, and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved by yet another mark, now in fourth place. On top of this accolade, it also received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. As of 2009, Consumer Reports of the United States has changed their reliability ratings for several Mercedes-Benz vehicles to "average", and recommending the E-Class and the S-Class.
The 1990s saw Mercedes-Benz purchase British engine builder Ilmor (now Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines), and campaign IndyCars under the USAC/CART rules, eventually winning the 1994 Indianapolis 500 and 1994 CART IndyCar World Series Championship with Al Unser, Jr. at the wheel. The 1990s also saw the return of Mercedes-Benz to GT racing, and the Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR, both of which took the company to new heights by dominating the FIA's GT1 class.
Mercedes-Benz is currently active in three forms of motorsport, Formula Three, DTM and Formula One.
Formula 1In Formula One, the company part-owns Team McLaren, and has supplied the team with engines engineered by Ilmor since 1995. This partnership has brought success, including Drivers Championships for Mika Häkkinen in 1998 and 1999, and for Lewis Hamilton in 2008, as well as a Constructors Championship in 1998. The collaboration with McLaren has been extended into the production of roadgoing cars such as the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren.
In 2009, Ross Brawn's newly conceived Formula One team, Brawn GP used Mercedes engines to help win the Constructor's Championship, and Jenson Button to become champion in the F1 Drivers' Championship. It also sold back its 40% stake in McLaren to the McLaren Group and now owns 70% of the Brawn GP team jointly with an Abu Dubai based investment consortium. Brawn GP will be renamed Mercedes Grand Prix in 2010.
Business alliances (Studebaker-Packard Corporation)In 1958, Mercedes-Benz entered into a distribution agreement with the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana (USA), makers of Studebaker and Packard brand automobiles. Under the deal, Studebaker would allow Mercedes-Benz access to their U.S. dealer network, handle shipments of vehicles to those dealers, and in return receive compensation for each car sold. Studebaker also was permitted to use the German automaker's name in its advertisements, which stressed Studebaker's quality over quantity.
When Studebaker entered into informal discussions with Franco-American automaker Facel Vega about offering their Facel Vega Excellence model in the United States, Mercedes-Benz objected to the proposal. Studebaker, which needed Mercedes-Benz distribution payments to help stem heavy losses, dropped further action on the plan.
Mercedes-Benz maintained an office within the Studebaker works in South Bend from 1958 to 1963, when Studebaker's U.S. operations ceased. Many U.S Studebaker dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships at that time. When Studebaker closed its Canadian operation and left the automobile business in 1966, remaining Studebaker dealers had the option to convert their dealerships to Mercedes-Benz dealership agreements.
ProductionBesides its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are also manufactured or assembled in:
- Argentina (buses, trucks and the Sprinter van. The first Mercedes-Benz factory outside of Germany)
- Austria (G-Class)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Brazil (buses, trucks, C-class passenger cars (export only), established in 1956)
- Ghana (buses, trucks, taxis)
- Hungary (construction of a new plant in the country announced on June 18, 2008, for the next generation A- and B-Class)
- Nigeria (buses, trucks, utility motors and the van Sprinter)
- South Africa
- South Korea (Mercedes-Benz Musso and MB100 models manufactured by SsangYong Motor Company)
- Thailand (assembly of C, E and S class vehicles by the Thonburi Group)
- United Kingdom (The SLR sports car is built at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking).Brackley, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom Mercedes Grand Prix Factory
Mercedes-Benz range todayMercedes-Benz has a full range of passenger, light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Production is on a global basis. The Smart marque of city cars has also been part of the Mercedes-Benz Group since 1994.
- A-Class - mid-sized MPV
- B-Class - sports tourer/hatchback
- C-Class - saloon, sports coupé and estate
- CL-Class - coupé
- CLC-Class - coupé
- CLK-Class - coupé and cabriolet
- CLS-Class - sedan
- CLC-Class - luxury compact car
- E-Class - saloon, coupé and estate
- G-Class - 4WD cross-country vehicle
- GL-Class - SUV
- GLK-Class - SUV
- M-Class - SUV
- R-Class - minivan
- S-Class - saloon
- SL-Class - roadster
- SLK-Class - roadster
- SLR-Class - roadster
- SLS-Class - roadster
Significant car models produced
- 1928: SSK racing car
- 1930: 770 "Grosser Mercedes" state and ceremonial car
- 1934: 500 K
- 1936: 260 D World's first diesel production car
- 1936: 170
- 1938: W195 Speed Record-breaker
- 1951: Mercedes-Benz 300, knownly as "Adenauer Mercedes"
- 1953: "Ponton" models
- 1954: 300SL "Gullwing"
- 1959: "Fintail" models
- 1960: 220SE Cabriolet
- 1963: 600 "Grand Mercedes"
- 1963: 230SL "Pagoda"
- 1965: Mercedes-Benz S-Class
- 1966: 300SEL 6.3
- 1968: W114 "new generation" compact cars
- 1969: C111 experimental vehicle
- 1972: Mercedes-Benz W107 350SL
- 1974: 450SEL 6.9
- 1974: 240D
- 1976: 300D
- 1979: 500SEL and G-Class
- 1983: 190E 2.3-16
- 1986: First 'E-Class'
- 1991: 600SEL
- 1993: First 'C-Class'
- 1995: First 'Joint Mercedes-Benz & AMG' (C43 AMG)
- 1995: Mercedes-Benz SL73 AMG, 7.3 V12 (biggest engine ever put in a Mercedes-Benz)
- 1996: Mercedes-Benz Renntech E7.4RS
- 1997: Mercedes-Benz M-Class
- 1996: Mercedes-Benz CLK
- 1997: Mercedes-Benz SLK
- 2004: Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren
- 2004: Mercedes-Benz CLS
- 2007: E320, GL320 Bluetec, ML320 Bluetec, R320 Bluetec
Car nomenclatureIn 1994 (starting with the 1994 models), the traditional nomenclature of Mercedes-Benz vehicles changed. Since the early days of the company, the name would be in the form of (for example) 500E where the engine displacement made up the first three numbers and the last letter(s) represented the type of engine and/or chassis; for example: E for fuel injection (German: Einspritzung), D for Diesel, L for long-wheelbase, etcetera.
In 1994, this was altered so that the prefix reflected the model or Class, German: Klasse, in Mercedes-Benz terminology, and a number for the engine displacement. The suffix was retained in some cases, for example L for long wheelbase, and CDI for Diesel (CDI = Common-rail Direct Injection). Thus, the 500E in the example above became the E500 ("E-Klasse", 5 litres displacement). It should also be noted that while in the past the model number generally accurately reflected the actual engine displacement, this is currently not always the case — for example the E200 CDI and E220 CDI actually both have a 2.2 litre displacement, and the C240 actually has a 2.6 litre engine.
Electric vehiclesMercedes has showed in 2009 the Vision S500 PHEV petrol concept vehicle with a 19 miles (31 km) all-electric range and CO2 emissions of 74 grams/km in the New European Driving Cycle.
At the 2007 Frankfurt motor show, Mercedes-Benz also showed seven hybrid models, including the F700 concept car - which combined hybrid drive with the innovative DiesOtto engine.
In 2009, the S400 hybrid saloon is scheduled to go on sale.
On the other hand, Mercedes-Benz says it will have a demonstration fleet of practical, if small, electric vehicles on the road in two to three years, from 2008.
Mercedes-Benz S 400 BlueHYBRID will be launched in 2009, and will be the first production automotive hybrid in the world to use a lithium-ion battery.
Mercedes-Benz BlueZERO cars were introduced in the 2009 North American International Auto Show.
- Mercedes-Benz C111 - sports car and test vehicle for different high performance engines (wankel engine and later diesel engines)
- Mercedes-Benz Auto 2000 - four-door saloon
- Mercedes-Benz NAFA - microcar
- Mercedes-Benz C112 - sports car and development mule
- Mercedes-Benz F 100 - car introduced in 1991
- Mercedes-Benz F 200 Imagination - two-door coupé introduced in 1996 Paris Motor Show
- Mercedes-Benz F 300 Life Jet - three-wheel car/motorcycle unveiled in 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show
- Vario Research Car - one car, four vehicles
- Mercedes-Benz Vision SLR - prototype of Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, unveiled in 1999 North American International Auto Show
- Mercedes-Benz Vision SLA - convertible with details of the SLR, but based on the A-Class platform, unveiled in 2000 North American International Auto Show
- Mercedes-Benz F 400 Carving - a two-seat roadster unveiled in 2002 Tokyo Motor Show
- Mercedes Benz F 500 Mind - four-door fastback saloon unveiled in 2003 Tokyo Motor Show
- Mercedes-Benz F 600 HYGENIUS - compact fuel cell car, unveiled in 2005 Tokyo Motor Show
- Mercedes-Benz Bionic - car unveiled in 2005 DaimlerChrysler Innovation Symposium in Washington, modeled after boxfish
- Mercedes-Benz Ocean Drive - a four-door convertible based on the S600
- Mercedes-Benz F700 - large luxury saloon featuring the small capacity / high output DiesOtto engine, unveiled at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show.
- Mercedes-Benz ConceptFASCINATION - shooting-brake giving a preview of the W212, unveiled at 2008 Paris Motor Show
- Mercedes-Benz S 400 BlueHYBRID
- Mercedes-Benz F-Cell Roadster
Mercedes-Benz also produces buses, mainly for Europe and Asia.The first factory to be built outside Germany after WWII was in Argentina. It originally built trucks, many of which were modified independently to buses, popularly named Colectivo. Today, it builds buses, trucks and the Sprinter van.
- The current (January 2009) range consists of
- Mercedes-Benz Vito — light van based on the Viano MPV with a payload of approx 1 tonne
- Mercedes-Benz Sprinter — mid-sized van, based on a joint venture with the Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Crafter, with payloads of 2 to 6 tonne. Also produced as a Dodge in USA and Canada with the name Freightliner Sprinter.
- Sprinter 414 416CDI ambulance
- Sprinter 316CDI light ambulance
- Mercedes-Benz Vario — heavy van with similar load to a light truck (7.5 tonne)
- Previous models include
- Mercedes-Benz TN or T1 - mid-sized van, predecessor to the sprinter
- Mercedes-Benz T2 - heavy Van
- All other previous models on the German Wikipedia
TrucksMercedes-Benz is one of the world's largest manufacturer of trucks.
- The current (January 2009) range consists of
- Mercedes-Benz Atego — light truck from 7 to 16 tonnes
- Mercedes-Benz Axor — mid-sized truck from 18 to 26 tonnes in rigid and articulated
- Mercedes-Benz Actros — heavy duty rigid and premium articulated — 18 to 250 tonnes
- Mercedes-Benz Econic — low floor version of the Axor for refuse and specialist applications
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog — for special purpose applications and transport across extreme terrain
- Mercedes-Benz Zetros — off-road truck for extreme operations
- 1828L (F581) Mobile Casualty Treatment Centre
- 1517L Mobile Casualty Treatment Centre
- Old - Mercedes-Benz L-series truck
BicyclesMercedes-Benz Accessories GmbH introduced 3 new bicycles in 2005, named Automatic Bike from upwards of USD$699, Fitness Bike from upwards of USD$999, Mountain Bike from upwards of USD$1399 (Prices recorded from immediate release date). The bikes are sold in Australia, Germany, and Russia.
- List of bicycles
- Mercedes-Benz Automatic Bike
- Mercedes-Benz Carbon Bike
- Mercedes-Benz Fitness Bike
- Mercedes-Benz Hybrid Bike
- Mercedes-Benz Mountain Bike
- Mercedes-Benz Street Bike
TunersSeveral companies have become car tuners (or modifiers) of Mercedes Benz, in order to increase performance and/or luxury to a given model.
In houseAMG is Mercedes-Benz's in-house performance-tuning division, specialising in high-performance versions of most Mercedes-Benz cars. AMG engines are all hand-built, and each completed engine receives a tag with the signature of the engineer who built it. AMG has been wholly owned by Mercedes-Benz since 1999. On the 2009 IAA in Frankfurt, Germany, Mercedes officially introduced the SLS AMG, a revival of the 300SL Gullwing, and the first car to be developed by AMG.
Aftermarket tunersThere are numerous independent tuners:
- Fluid MotorUnion
Noted employees (selection)
- Béla Barényi - car safety pioneer and original designer of the Volkswagen Beetle concept
- Nicholas Dreystadt - Cadillac manager
- Juan Manuel Fangio - considered by many the best F1 driver in history
- Wilhelm Maybach - automotive pioneer
- Stirling Moss - F1 driver
- Ferdinand Piëch - Volkswagen and Porsche manager
- Ferdinand Porsche - founder of Porsche
- Rudolf Uhlenhaut - designer of the Mercedes-Benz 300SL
- Bruno Sacco - automotive designer
- Lewis Hamilton - F1 driver
- Jenson Button - F1 driver
- Michael Schumacher - F1 driver
- Adolf Eichmann - Former Nazi criminal, worked in Argentina's factory after WWII
InnovationsNumerous technological innovations have been introduced on Mercedes-Benz automobiles throughout the many years of their production, including:
- The internal combustion engined automobile was developed independently by Benz and Daimler & Maybach in 1886
- Daimler invented the honeycomb radiator of the type still used on all water-cooled vehicles today
- Daimler invented the float carburetor which was used until replaced by fuel injection
- The "drop chassis" - the car originally designated the "Mercedes" by Daimler was also the first car with a modern configuration, having the carriage lowered and set between the front and rear wheels, with a front engine and powered rear wheels. All earlier cars were "horseless carriages", which had high centres of gravity and various engine/drive-train configurations
- The first passenger road car to have brakes on all four wheels (1924)
- The "safety cage" or "safety cell" construction with front and rear crumple zones was first developed by Mercedes-Benz in 1951. This is considered by many as the most important innovation in automobile construction from a safety standpoint
- In 1959, Mercedes-Benz patented a device that prevents drive wheels from spinning by intervening at the engine, transmission, or brakes. In 1987, Mercedes-Benz applied its patent by introducing a traction control system that worked under both braking and acceleration
- Traction control and airbags in the European market, were Mercedes-Benz innovations. These technologies were introduced in 1986, and 1980 respectively
- Mercedes-Benz was the first to introduce pre-tensioners to seat belts on the 1981 S-Class. In the event of a crash, a pre-tensioner will tighten the belt instantaneously, removing any 'slack' in the belt, which prevents the occupant from jerking forward in a crash
- In September 2003, Mercedes-Benz introduced the world's first seven-speed automatic transmission called '7G-Tronic'
- Electronic Stability Programme (ESP), brake assist, and many other types of safety equipment were all developed, tested, and implemented into passenger cars—first—by Mercedes-Benz. Mercedes-Benz has not made a large fuss about its innovations, and has even licensed them for use by competitors — in the name of improving automobile and passenger safety. As a result, crumple zones and anti-lock brakes (ABS) are now standard on all modern vehicles.
- The most powerful naturally-aspirated eight cylinder engine in the world is the Mercedes-AMG, 6208 cc M156 V8 engine. The V8 engine is badged '63 AMG', and replaced the '55 AMG' M113 engine in most models. The M156 engine produces up to 391 kW (532 PS; 524 bhp), and although some models using this engine do have this output (such as the S63 and CL63 AMGs), specific output varies slightly across other models in the range
- The (W211) E320 CDI which has a variable geometry turbocharger (VTG) 3.0 litre V6 common rail diesel engine (producing 224-horsepower), set three world endurance records. It covered 100,000 miles (160,000 km) in a record time, with an average speed of 224.823 kilometres per hour (139.70 mph). Three identical cars did the endurance run (one set above record) and the other two cars set world records for time taken to cover 100,000 kilometres (62,137 mi) and 50,000 miles (80,000 km) respectively. After all three cars had completed the run, their combined distance was 300,000 miles (480,000 km) (all records were FIA approved).
- Mercedes-Benz pioneered a system called Pre-Safe to detect an imminent crash - and prepares the car's safety systems to respond optimally. It also calculates the optimal braking force required to avoid an accident in emergency situations, and makes it immediately available for when the driver depresses the brake pedal. Occupants are also prepared by tightening the seat belt, closing the sunroof and windows, and moving the seats into the optimal position.
- Mercedes Benz developed a fatigue-detection system, known as Attention Assist, that warns the driver when they are displaying signs of micro-sleep (when the eyes stay closed for slightly longer than a natural blinking action). The system will use a variety of data including the individual driving style, the duration of the journey, the time of day and the current traffic situation. Fatigue mostly sets in gradually.
- Mercedes Benz invented the adaptive highbeam assist system, which automatically and continuously adapts the headlamp range to the distance of vehicles ahead or which are oncoming. The new system continually adjusts the beam so that the headlamp cone falls just in front of other vehicles, at the same time always ensuring maximum possible range without dazzling other road users. The adaptive highbeam assist is introduced first in the new generation E-Class.